Ghana is located on the west coast of Africa, about 750 km north of the equator between the latitudes of 4 and 11.5o north and longitude 3.11° West and 1.11° East. It is bounded on the north by Burkina Faso, on the west by La Cote D’lvoire, on the east by Togo and on the south by the Gulf of Guinea (Atlantic Ocean). Tema, the industrial city, which is adjunct to Accra, the capital city of Ghana, is on the Greenwich Meridian (zero line of longitude), making Ghana the closest landmark to the center of the world.
Ghana habours mineral resources such as gold, crude oil, diamonds, manganese, limestone, bauxite, iron ore as well as various clays and granite deposits. In 2015, Ghana produced 2,998,030 million ounces of gold. (Ghana is the second largest producer of gold in Africa). Crude oil production in 2015 averaged 102,600 bopd a day. Ghana is the second largest producer of cocoa in the world. It is also the third largest producer of timber and the second largest exporter of wood and wood products in Africa; Rich marine fishing resources (tuna and game fishing);
Ghana has a tropical climate. The temperature is generally between 21-32°C (70-90°F). There are two rainy seasons, from March to July and from September to October, separated by a short cool dry season in August and a relatively long dry season in the south from mid-October to March. The north, also with tropical climate, is dry and falls partly within the Sahelian zone. Annual rainfall in the south averages 2,030 mm, but varies greatly throughout the country, with the heaviest rainfall in the south-western part.
Ghana’s population is estimated at about 18.9 million and grows at 2.7% annually. Most of the population is concentrated in the southern part of the country with the highest density occurring in urban and cocoa producing areas.
There are 56 Ghanaian dialects, of which Akan, Dangbe, Ewe, Kasem, Gonja, Dagare, Gas, Dagbani and Nzema are the major languages. The official language of the country is English, but French and Hausa are two major foreign languages spoken in the country.
Ghana’s constitution guarantees freedom of religion. The 2010 Population Census indicates that Christianity, Islam and Traditional Religion are the major faiths practiced in Ghana with the following representation: Christianity (71.2%), Islam (17.6%) and traditional religion (6%). A significant proportion (5.2%) has no religious affiliation.